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Citation Guidelines

VLEARNY Journal of Business
(A peer reviewed Management journal)

Citations and References Guidelines:

  1. In-Text Citations:
  • When citing a work by one or two authors, include the authors’ last names and the publication year. For example: (Author1 & Author2, Year).
  • When citing a work by three or more authors, use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” and the publication year. For example: (Author1 et al., Year).
  • For direct quotations, include the page number after the publication year. For example: (Author, Year, p. PageNumber).
  1. Reference List:
  • Arrange the reference list alphabetically by the last name of the first author.
  • Include the initials of all authors’ first names.
  • Italicize the titles of books, journals, and other standalone works.
  1. Common Reference Formats:


Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of book. Publisher.

Example: Smith, J. A., & Jones, M. B. (2019). Leadership in a Changing World. Academic Press.

Journal Articles:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page range. DOI or URL

Example: Doe, J. R., & Johnson, K. L. (2020). The impact of organizational culture on employee motivation. Journal of Management Studies, 25(3), 123-145. https://doi.org/xxxx

Conference Proceedings:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of paper. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of Conference Proceedings (pages). Publisher.

Example: Brown, P. Q., & White, L. M. (2018). Strategic decision-making in dynamic environments. In S. Johnson & M. Davis (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Business Strategy (pp. 45-56). Academic Publications.

Online Sources:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of webpage/document. Website Name. URL

Example: Smith, K. L. (2021). The future of sustainable business practices. VLEARNY Journal. https://www.vlearny.com/journal-description

  1. Additional Tips:
  • Use “et al.” for more than seven authors in both in-text citations and the reference list.
  • For multiple works by the same author in the same year, distinguish them with a, b, c, etc. (e.g., 2020a, 2020b).
  • Check for DOI (Digital Object Identifier) availability for journal articles. Include the DOI in the reference if available.

Note: Always refer to the latest APA Publication Manual for the most accurate and up-to-date citation guidelines.

By adhering to these APA citation and reference guidelines, authors contribute to the clarity and professionalism of their submissions to VLEARNY: The Journal of Business & Managerial Efficacy.

Relevant Indexes for Authors:


  • The h-index is short for the Hirsch index – Jorge E. Hirsch (2005).
  • The h-index is an author-level metric that attempts to measure both the productivity and citation impact of the publications of a scientist or scholar.
  • The h-index is simply a count of the largest number of papers (h) from a journal or author that have at least (h) number of citations.
  • In order to increase the h-index, one must publish papers of high quality. The researcher should ensure that he/she has not published any article in predatory/fake journals. The researcher should publish more and more original research articles. Although, sometimes publishing more review articles receives the greater number of citations, that ultimately increases the h-index in a profile.
  • For instance, an h-index of 17 means that the scientist has published at least 17 papers that have each been cited at least 17 times.  If the scientist’s 18th most cited publication was cited only 10 times, the h-index would remain at 17.  If the scientist’s 18th most cited publication was cited 18 or more times, the h-index would rise to 18.


  • The i10-index is the newest in the line of journal metrics and was introduced by Google Scholar in 2011.
  • It is a simple and straightforward indexing measure found by tallying a journal’s total number of published papers with at least 10 citations.
  • i10 index also helps in increasing the weightage of any student profile. The main advantage of the i10 index is that it can be calculated very easily. Google scholar provides easy and free access to find out these metrics.
  • An i-10 index of 25 means that, out of total publications, the researcher has received at least 10 citations for every 25 published articles. The i-10 index differs from researcher to researcher. It mainly depends on the subject area and sub-section of the research area.
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